戏曲武生课-小郭老师

 

小郭老师’s comments from discussions/lectures on 6/2/17 and 13/2/17:

  • 戏曲的专业性很强,入门的训练很枯燥,所以现在越来越少人会对学戏曲感兴趣。
  • 北方的剧比较多武戏。
  • 京剧有大概200年的历史(明末,清朝)
  • 京剧的前生是“四大徽班”
  • From the ritualistic songs and shamanistic dances in the 元朝, there began to have combination of 戏 and 曲。
  • Zheng Long asked about the rise and fall of Chinese opera as a performing art from the past to the present, and if the 专业性会变?
    • Answer:外来的因素能让戏曲更进步,更往前发展。京剧算是一个挺完整的系统。Change has always been a part of 京剧, even during 清朝 (e.g. 梅兰芳used innovative performing methods)。 The changes in the past were made due to 专业性, nowadays the changes are to allow contemporary audiences to understand 戏曲 and be attracted to it. One example of a big change in the current 戏曲 scene is the 舞美 (stage design).
  • In the past, parents sent their children to the opera troupes to train because they were too poor to bring them up. The opera troupe trained them harshly for 3 years, fed them and gave them shelter, then they had to work for the troupe for another 2 years after that and all the profits went to the 师傅。
  • Nowadays if an opera performer wins awards in a competition, they are set for life, so they only know one or two 戏s well. Thus comparing to the practitioners in the past, they are not as skilled.
  • “Need to keep the tradition before innovating”
  • 以前的京剧没有‘导演’这个位置的:有师兄,老师,师傅。
  • 梅兰芳met up with Charlie Chaplin, who asked who is the director?
  • Usually those performing the main roles are the most clear of the stage structure, because they have the most skill and experience. Now they invite famous directors in order to use their 名气。
  • Ruimin asked how did Chinese opera come to be Chinese dance? (i.e. the reasons behind opera 舞姿 and the reasoning behind the change to Chinese dance)
    • Answer: 戏曲是综合的艺术,其实是先有舞蹈再有曲和戏,然后再有戏曲。
    • N.B. this question was not really suitable for 小郭老师 because he doesn’t have much understanding of what Chinese classical dance is.
  • What is 民族性/民族特点?
    • 传统中国审美
    • 国家的历史与现状
  • 戏曲的根本: 唱念做打
    • 打:杂技,武术,体操
    • 变脸
    • 程式动作
    • Singing in Chinese languages
    • 唱戏,不是唱歌!
  • 戏曲从生活吸取题材,但必须要高于生活,必须要美!
  • 艺术性:美(不是普通人轻易能做到的动作/表演)
  • There is a universal 美,but an individual 审美。我们追求the universal 美。
  • 编创:要合理
    • 要能解释为什么合理
    • 有些人不觉得合理,但他们也有自己的原因
      • 不是‘错’,但不合理
      • 有时候也会发生这种情况:老师不觉得合理,但确实有人在用这种方法唱戏。
    • 有不同派别/风格
    • 但戏曲的基本功是保持的
  • 高靴的原因
    • 装饰,配合服装
    • 能改变演员的高度
  • 吊眉:隐藏年纪
  • 为什么戏曲要唱高音?
    • 当你情绪激动的时候,讲话/喊都会偏高音
    • 但高低音无所谓,重点是要唱得有‘味道’。
  • 生旦净末丑
  • 勾脸武生:
    • 高登
  • 长靠武生/大靠(靠旗)
    • 分量大,地位重
    • 厚底鞋
  • 软靠/改良靠
    • 没有靠旗但有厚底鞋
    • second-in-command
  • 短打武生
    • e.g. 三岔口
    • 薄底鞋
  • 娃娃生
    • e.g. 哪吒,沉香
  • 文老生/武老生
    • e.g. 黄忠
  • 武小生
    • e.g. 周瑜,杨宗保(穆桂英的老公)
  • 大武生/小武生
    • 技巧很好
    • 没有规定的定义
  • 刀马旦/武旦
  • “丑武生,俊花脸”
    • 武生将就感觉,不需太细
  • 武生
    • 脆,帅,美
    • 脆:不拖泥带水,干净
    • 帅:扮相
    • 美:身段美
    • 一定要化得干干净净,especially because so detailed
  • At the beginning have to learn everything: 基本功 and most 唱腔
    • Start at around 7, 8 years old
    • Don’t really have pre-requisites
    • 三年后,开始排戏的时候,老师决定学生唱什么位置
  • 戏曲服装是以明清服装为主
  • 民族文化决定服装的颜色
  • 武生用所有的道具
  • One of the common problems with Chinese opera nowadays is the use of literal, large-scale and elaborate sets. Xiqu is about the performance of daily-life movement. If the props provide the literal performance of the action then it takes away the subtleties of xiqu performance.

 

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