郑龙 (translation by Elizabeth)：
戏曲与中国古典舞(近代)的关联 The relationship between Chinese xiqu and Chinese Classical dance
我觉得两者的关联在于“像与不像” 后者因一定的外在因素(政治、民族需求)改变 创新而成 起步突兀 时间较短和缺少大量的民间基础(相对比民族民间舞的基础就非常扎实) 还有就是整体的系统一直处于成长状态 它需要借鉴相对成熟的体系去学习成长 戏曲作为历史悠久群众基础庞大并且拥有浓郁民族文化性的一门艺术 不可避免的就成为了主要学习对象之一
My thoughts regarding the relationship between these two performance forms:
- Chinese classical dance
- the changes in Chinese classical dance often happen due to external (political and cultural) elements
- it came about due to innovation
- it was institutionalised quite suddenly
- it is a rather new performance genre and lacks a firm minjian base (as compared to Chinese ethnic folk dance)
- the system that is currently in place is constantly being developed and growing
- thus, there is possibly a need to borrow more mature systems from other forms
- Chinese xiqu
- has a longer history
- has a well-exposed and educated audience
- is rooted in a strong minzu culture
- naturally became one of the ideal forms to learn from for Chinese classical dance
在动作上中国古典舞(近代)模仿戏曲动作并加以提炼是其通常做法 比如 手型 脚位 技术 身法这些都十分相像却在细微之处加以改动 以不同的审美方式(受西方芭蕾及传统武术影响)在不失去独特韵味的同时去改变限制并规范它 那为什么要“限制规范”呢 我个人猜测是受西方芭蕾舞剧和芭蕾基础训练里“规范性”的思想所导致的当然还带点政治因素
In terms of movement vocabulary, taking movements from xiqu and then refining them into dance movements, has been the norm. For example, hand shapes, the positions of the feet and shenfa evident in Chinese classical dance are extremely similar to those used in xiqu, with only subtle changes made. Using different aesthetics (due to Western ballet and Chinese martial arts influences), they changed these movements, while retaining their unique yunwei, and then fixed specific requirements for these altered movements. Why is there a need to make absolute requirements for the dance vocabulary? I feel that this is due to the influence of the ballet training and performance system. The notion of codifying steps with specific instructions and requirements is also a politically influenced decision.
戏曲的动作大多数以人物剧情生活状态为基础加以夸张的表现手法呈现出丰富的情感去感染观众 这点在中国古典舞(近代)的剧目表演编创上也起着巨大的影响 它一定程度上也借鉴了戏曲的表演编创方式 当然舞蹈在剔除了唱和念之后以纯身体的方式来表现出情感与塑造角色可谓说是非常非常困难的 在这种困难的刺激下中国古典舞(近代)才逐渐的形成了自己的编创表演风格
The movements in xiqu are mostly centred around a character and his/her setting and events experienced within the story. One of the strategies used in xiqu is to exaggerate the emotional performance so as to touch the audience on an emotional level as well. This in turn, made a huge impact on Chinese classical dance choreography. Chinese classical dance choreography borrows many of the same techniques used by xiqu. Of course, dance faces much more difficulty in portraying a character without singing and speech, and by only using the body. However, it is also this difficulty that allowed Chinese classical dance choreography to find its own style.
还有就是除了出发点及民众基础上的有所不同外 在中国古典舞(近代)本身的艺术系统发展上也和戏曲艺术系统的发展非常相似 四大徽班进京之前可以说都属于是地方艺术 它在进化之前本身就已经五花八门了还吸收了当地的各种唱腔身段技术技巧 我觉得这点算是中国古典舞(近代)缺失的部分 在徽班进京之后在政府支持下开始了融合与进化 这个过程就非常像中国古典舞(近代)的形成方式(可能中国比较喜欢这样的方式) 只不过舞蹈吸收的内容跨度及借鉴的各类艺术复杂程度上更加明显 时间上来说戏曲艺术在进化的道路上已经走了很久已经非常成熟了而中国古典舞(近代)的进化或许才开始不久吧
The development of Chinese classical dance as a practice is also similar to the development of xiqu as an artistic system. Before the sidahuiban brought xiqu to Beijing, it was considered an indigenous performance form. Before its evolution into jingju (京剧), it was already a combined performance form that involved different performance methods, but each with its own unique way of singing, performance technique and shenduan (specific to the place it originated from). I feel that this is something that Chinese classical dance lacks. After the sidahuiban came to Beijing, they were able to develop a system with the help of the government. This process was very similar to the one Chinese classical dance went through (perhaps China likes to use this method), however it is clear that dance absorbed the different influences and borrowed from different forms in a much more complicated way. In terms of time, xiqu has already existed much longer and thus has a much more mature system, whereas Chinese classical dance is much younger and therefore much less mature.
审美 借鉴 模仿 提炼 升华 突破这些或许就是戏曲与中国古典舞(近代)互相关联却又因这些最终各自产生了不同的表演艺术
Aesthetics, borrowing from other forms, mimicry, refinement, innovation: these elements exist and closely relate to each other in both xiqu and Chinese classical dance, however certain differences in the way these elements are applied, ultimately paved the way for two very different performance forms.
P.S. Chinese classical dance refers to the official dance genre that was institutionalized in the People’s Republic of China post-1949