Q1: One of the first questions we asked was: “How can we clarify what 民族性 means?”
According to the official historiography, Chinese Classical Dance aims to portray:
- 民族心理， 精神，生活
- cultural beliefs (conceptual) and forms (actions)
- not all positive
- i.e. 封建时期的裹脚
- has something that is at once both enduring and flexible (changes with the times)
Q2: The next question, is then, what if these ideas of ‘Chineseness’ have changed so much that:
- people insist that their version of a Chinese culture is very different from that of the ‘traditional 民族性’
- e.g. Hong Kong
- or that because of political and ideological disagreements, people refuse to be grouped under the same category
- e.g. Taiwan
- or if their physical and historical distance from the ‘centre of Chineseness’ (i.e. the PRC) is too distant, so that they are seen as ‘lesser Chinese’, regardless of the actual cultural beliefs and forms that are practiced
- e.g. Singapore
Q3: So is it true that only those Chinese dancers who trained in the PRC and grew up there, within that (more authentic?) culture, are seen as legitimate ‘professional Chinese dancers’?
Ans: Unofficially, no, because Beijing Dance Academy takes in foreigners into their full-time dance degree programmes and there is a category in the Tao Li Bei Competition for ‘outsiders’. But officially, there has yet to be a non-PRC in any of the large professional Chinese dance companies, and even in the professional Chinese dance companies of Hong Kong and Singapore, a large majority of the dancers are from (i.e. born, raised, and trained in) the PRC.
Therefore, Chinese Classical Dance is not just a traditional performance form, it is also a cultural, political and contemporary phenomenon. (This conclusion is gained through both previous readings and discussions with all the collaborators.)
Task #1: Depict a contemporary Chinese person through dance
Zheng Long chose his childhood friend, Zhang Zheng.
Note: music was played at random
About the character:
- childhood friend (younger than him, male)
- Zheng Long feels like an older brother to him
- Zhang Zheng’s body is not suited for Chinese Classical Dance but he was led into it by his parents
- he suffered quite a bit during school due to many teachers reinforcing the notion that he was not suitable for this dance genre
- after graduation he went into the hip hop scene as a B-boy instead
About the movement phrase:
- less projected movements because the character is more introverted, so even though Chinese Classical dance tends to be more projected, Zheng Long chose not to project that much
- more gestures (rather than dancey movements) because of time limit of task (he was given 20 minutes) and because he wanted to convey Zhang Zheng’s body language more directly to the audience
- included a gesture that his friend always does: both hands pulling the sides of the face downwards
- 小云手and 叩见 greeting depicts a beginning/the opening of school
- him seeing Zhang Zheng start school
- after the beginning there was a change in attitude in mindset and to portray this he swayed from foot to foot
- to show that his friend was clueless and passive
- then there was a rupture, when his teachers kept telling him that he wasn’t suitable for Chinese classical dance
- a literal 90 degree leg hold shows how his friend could not perform Chinese classical dance movements like 搬腿
- his intention and desire is clear but his body cannot do it
- gesture of one hand at the side and the other hand at a high level, together with the smile on his face, depicts Zhang Zheng’s optimism despite all the negativity
- gesture of pulling: depicts tearing apart, brokenness
- he did this while thinking of a particular juncture in Zhang Zheng’s life when his family was faced with difficulties
- lowering of level (with plie) after that depicts darkening of mood and losing grip on his optimism
- 叩见 done with quicker dynamics
- to show determination
- he picked himself up and decided to overcome these unhappy times
- turning of direction indicates the leaving of one dance genre (Chinese classical dance) for another (hip hop, B boy)
After the phrase was created:
When asked why he used much more gestures instead of Chinese classical dance movement, he answered that it would feel uncomfortable to use Chinese classical dance movement to depict this character because Zhang Zheng does not only have the language of Chinese classical dance.
Perhaps it was also because of Zhang Zheng’s personal history with the dance form?
Q4: What do you think are some examples of 民族风格特点？
- but for 古典舞： 儒雅，欲左先右
Q5: Analysis of 孔乙己 and 逼上梁山
At first, Zheng Long felt like these two pieces looked very similar, especially because the dancer and the choreographer were exactly the same. The success of 孔乙己 would also explicitly and implicitly affect the way the choreographer choreographed in the future and the way the audiences viewed his future works.
When analysing in greater detail:
- Zheng Long felt that the similarities were:
- the use of travelling in diagonal lines – from an upstage corner to the opposite downstage diagonal corner – to perform technical jumps
- a certain stylistic use of dynamic is repeated (e.g. one and TWO, where on counts ‘one’ and ‘and’, the dynamic is quick, sudden, direct, and on ‘TWO’ it is explosive and the projection of the head and eyes is usually towards a high level)
- during the slow section:
- the dancer stays in a low level, i.e. sitting, kneeling, rolling
- always has this hand reaching into the distance
- both dances end with an outreached arm with an intention to go towards that point
- many ‘out of control’ kind of falling to the floor
- many off-centre and off-balance movements, i.e. teeter-tottering
We both felt that the major difference was that in 孔乙己, there was more time spent on setting up the character, whereas in 逼上梁山, the character immediately begins the dance by reacting to an event (but we know this because of the story it is portraying).
The building up of 孔乙己 as a character took up one-third to half of the solo, and was more impactful also because the choreographer used humorous movement, and this is rarely seen in Chinese classical dance.
Q6: How do current actors ‘know’ the body language of ancient characters?
Q7: What cultural characteristics have changed and what has remained?
- less emphasis on tradition in general
- 入土为安 (more accepting of cremation after death)
- stereotype of the cunning Chinese businessman
Task #2: Create a solo based on Zhou Yu (from 三国演义) without using Chinese classical dance vocabulary
His thoughts: 很难受！1. 因为自身原因（不习惯）。2. 因为周羽是中国古代的人物，但突然不能用具有代表性的中国动作语汇，很难想动作！
He said that because he was actively trying to stop himself from using Chinese classical dance vocabulary, he ended up using a lot of gestures. He felt that once he allowed himself to ‘dance’, he would fall back into his habit of Chinese classical dance vocabulary, so he stuck with day-to-day kind of movements.
He also said that because Zhou Yu was someone who was so angry that he coughed up blood, it means that he has anger management issues, and he used that logic to develop his movement phrase.
Another point Zheng Long made was that it was hard to create a solo based on a historical character if one doesn’t know enough about him/her. i.e. enough research has to be done so that the performer can reach the thoughts, emotions, habits and body language of the character they are portraying.
Task #3: Create a solo based on Zhang Zheng without using Chinese classical dance vocabulary
Task #4: Create a solo based on Zhang Zheng, using whatever dance/movement vocabulary you want
His answer: 我觉得经历了一次过山车的体验… 开始时身体与思想的限制充斥于整个创作的时间里，非常的难受… 不停的去否定自己的动作，甚至到最后结出的果实也无法满足自己，就像过山车的上坡一样缓慢却不可停止的前行着。当难受到达顶点时思绪却不由自主的开始解放，我开始产生一些奇怪的动作与想法并尝试找出他们的连续性… 意外的挺顺利。过山车驶过了最高点开始飞速下冲，接下来的一切都顺利的多… 我也磨出了一些当时觉得满意的东西。现在看回那些录像，它反过来刺激到我，延伸出了一些不同于视频的创意（我想到的是一个男子三人舞），我自己感觉选择一些贴近生活的动作加以处理也是挺有趣的一种做法。
Q8: How might we reflect the changes in cultural characteristics, within the practice of Chinese classical dance?
Feminist dance dramas?
- Currently existing repertoire:
- 白毛女，红色娘子军 : but which are both Chinese ballets/model plays and have a very specific historical context as well
- 中国妈妈: a competition group dance depicting a group of women who took care of a Japanese orphan during the second Sino-Japanese War
- Other possible characters:
- Empress Cixi
- Wu Zetian
Pure movement pieces?
- e.g. 技巧组合s which are performed in dance competitions as a required section
- “Its very hard to do pure movement pieces in Chinese classical dance as many Chinese classical dance movements already have a framework of possible interpretations, but must try!” – Zheng Long
Q9: Do dance dramas and competition solo pieces have a BIG difference in artistic purpose/value?
One point we’re quite sure of after the exploration sessions was that Chinese classical dance does not have a static, unchanging definition. Which sounds quite obvious, but for a dance genre that is consistently being categorised (by both programmers and governing bodies) as Traditional Arts, it is a topic that sorely lacks understanding.
It is traditional in the sense that it seeks to transmit traditional culture through narrative and storytelling, but the methods and bodies that the dance form uses is contemporary. In fact I would argue that the form of the dance itself is a modern form (i.e. because it spawned around the 1950s).